Whisk first 11 ingredients together in a salad bowl. Preheat grill to medium-high. Brush the bread with the 2 Tbsp. olive oil. Grill the bread until heated through and lightly charred, about 1 minute per side.
Add the romaine to the salad bowl and toss to coat. Divide the salad among 4 plates. Sprinkle with the cheese and top with shrimp. Set 2 slices of the grilled bread on each plate and serve.
Note: Baguette-like in shape, filone bread is available in the bakery department.